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neels, 02/20/2017 11:56 AM

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h1. Contributing using Gerrit
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{{>toc}}
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At [[OpenBSC:OsmoDevCon2016]] we discussed problems with our past contribution / patch submission process using mails on the mailing list as well as patchwork.  The result is that we want to give Gerrit a try for some time and see if it helps us to have a better process
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Gerrit is a review tool that integrates nicely with git and ssh. You can find general information about Gerrit at https://www.gerritcodereview.com/
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The advantages of Gerrit are:
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* patch submission status is automatically tracked, also with several revisions for a patch set.
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* patches are build-tested (and possibly even further tested) by jenkins before they are applied
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* developers + maintainers can formally vote on a patch (developer: -1/0/+1, maintainer: -2/0/+2)
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* once a patch has +2 score, it can be (automatically) merged into master
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* patch sumissions not via git send-email but direcly from git
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h2. Osmocom Subprojects using Gerrit
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The following projects use Gerrit to contribute changes:
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* libosmocore.git
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* libosmo-abis.git
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* libosmo-netif.git
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* libosmo-sccp.git
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* libsmpp34.git
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* openbsc.git
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* osmo-bts.git
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* osmo-iuh.git
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* osmo-pcu.git
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* cellmgr-ng.git
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* osmo-sip-connector.git
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h2. Configuring Gerrit/Account
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You will need to sign-up at https://gerrit.osmocom.org/login/. If you have an Osmocom Redmine account you can use https://osmocom.org/openid as OpenID provider.
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* first sign in on https://osmocom.org.
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* go to https://gerrit.osmocom.org and click the "Sign in" link.
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* enter "https://osmocom.org/openid" as OpenID provider and hit the "Sign in" button.
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If you have no Osmocom redmine account, you can simply create one online at the "Register" link in the upper right corner.
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Even without an existing or new redmine account, you should also be able to use any other OpenID provider to authenticate against gerrit (untested).
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After the initial sign-up you will need to:
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* Pick a username (can not be changed)
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* Add your public ssh key(s)
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* Add email addresses you intend to use as author/comitter
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If you would like to push private branches to the Gerrit repository, you also need to be added to the "known users" group.
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Please send a short requesting email to openbsc@lists.osmocom.org.
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h2. Setting up Gerrit for commits and pushing
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*Note:* it is easiest to work with gerrit when gerrit is the only remote in your git clone.
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When you clone from git.osmocom.org and add the gerrit remote, git will have two remotes,
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so when you first checkout a branch you have to supply the remote explicitly (cumbersome).
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The gerrit repositories and git.osmocom.org are constantly synced, so it is sufficient
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to clone from gerrit only.
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h3. Simplest: new clone
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* Create a new clone from gerrit
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* Fetch the commit hook that adds Change-Id to each commit to uniquely identify a commit
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<pre>
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git clone ssh://$USERNAME@gerrit.osmocom.org:29418/$PROJECT.git
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scp -P 29418 $USERNAME@gerrit.osmocom.org:hooks/commit-msg $PROJECT/.git/hooks/
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</pre>
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h3. SSH config
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In '~/.ssh/config', add these lines:
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<pre>
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Host go
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Hostname gerrit.osmocom.org
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Port 29418
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User $USERNAME
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</pre>
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('go' means gerrit.osmocom, replace with your favorite shortcut name,
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replace '$USERNAME' with your user name as used on the gerrit website)
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Then you can shorten above commands to
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<pre>
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git clone ssh://go/$PROJECT.git
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cd $PROJECT
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scp go:hooks/commit-msg .git/hooks/
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</pre>
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h3. Committer must match
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Your email address on gerrit and the email address git places in your
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commits must match, or you will get rejected with an error message like
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"invalid commiter". You can add email addresses on the gerrit web UI.
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h3. Add gerrit to an existing clone
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* Add the remote to be able to fetch and push to gerrit
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* Fetch the commit hook that adds Change-Id to each commit to uniquely identify a commit
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<pre>
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USERNAME=gerrit_user_name
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PROJECT=$(basename $PWD)
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git remote add gerrit ssh://$USERNAME@gerrit.osmocom.org:29418/$PROJECT.git
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scp -P 29418 $USERNAME@gerrit.osmocom.org:hooks/commit-msg .git/hooks/
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</pre>
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h2. Push for review
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Checkout the revision or branch that you want to submit for review, then
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<pre>
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git push gerrit HEAD:refs/for/master
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</pre>
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You can optionally add a topic name with
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<pre>
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git push gerrit HEAD:refs/for/master/my_topic
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</pre>
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h2. Merge patch to master
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A patch can be merged when it has CR+2 and V+1 votes, and if, in case of a
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series of patches pushed from a branch, when its ancestor patches can also be
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merged.
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Sometimes the reviewer that gives CR+2 also hits the "Submit" button right away 
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to merge the patch to master. Sometimes it is left up to the owner of the patch
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to decide when to hit "Submit".
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The V+1 vote means "build is verified" and is usually given by our jenkins
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builds (job names end in 'gerrit').
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The CR+2 vote means "code reviewed and ready for merge to master branch".
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Accounts with the "Reviewer" role for a given project are allowed to give CR+2
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votes. Others are allowed to give CR+1 (and CR-1). CR votes _don't_ add up.
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Sometimes hitting the "Submit" button results in an error message saying
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"Change is New", which is a bug related to a private branch with the same
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patches being present. Can be fixed e.g. by an admin's manual push to master.
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h2. Push a "private" user branch
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*Note* that you must be a member of the "known users" group, see above.
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If your local branch name is of the form 'your_name/topic', you can just
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<pre>
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git push
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</pre>
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and git will tell you what to do.
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To push from a "nonstandard" local branch name, do
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<pre>
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git push gerrit HEAD:refs/heads/user/$USERNAME/branch_name
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</pre>
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h2. List changesets in gerrit
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<pre>
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git ls-remote gerrit changes/*
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</pre>
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h1. Tips and Tricks
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h2. Throw-away branch
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If you need to adjust and re-submit patches, it may be handy to create a throw-away branch ("R D" in magit-gerrit in emacs for example),
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make your changes/amendments and then send patch(es) back to gerrit while removing temporary branch automatically with "git review -f".
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h2. Fetch a patch from gerrit
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This script (I called it @P@) makes fetching a patch set from gerrit a breeze:
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<pre>
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#!/bin/sh
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# fetch gerrit patch into new branch named like the patch number.
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#
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# Usage: go to a git clone and pass a patch number:
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#
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#   cd openbsc
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#   P 973
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# or
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#   P 973/2
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#
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# Will create new local branches '973_4' (if 4 is the latest patch set)
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# or '973_2', respectively.
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patch="$1"
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if [ -z "$patch" ]; then
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  echo "Usage: P 1234[/5]"
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  exit 1
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fi
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if [ -z "$(echo "$patch" | grep '/')" ]; then
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  patch="/$patch/"
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fi
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if [ -z "$(echo "$patch" | grep '^/')" ]; then
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  patch="/$patch"
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fi
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last_set="$(git ls-remote origin "changes/*" | grep "$patch" | sed 's#.*/\([^/]*\)$#\1 &#' | sort -n | tail -n 1)"
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if [ -z "$last_set" ]; then
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  echo "Not found: $patch"
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  exit 1
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fi
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change_name="$(echo "$last_set" | sed 's/.*\(refs.*\)/\1/')"
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branch_name="$(echo "$change_name" | sed 's#refs/changes/../\([0-9]*\)/\([0-9]*\)#\1_\2#')"
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set -x
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git fetch origin "$change_name"
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git co -b "$branch_name" FETCH_HEAD
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</pre>
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h2. Re-submit a Branch with Amended Commits
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On a feature branch, one typically has numerous commits that depend on their preceding commits.
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Often, some of the branch commits need to be amended for fixes. But, Gerrit will refuse your branch
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re-submission if the first branch commit is unchanged.
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To re-submit a branch, make sure to cosmetically tweak the branch's first commit log message
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before each re-submission (keep the Change-Id, really make just a cosmetic change).
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<pre>
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git rebase -i master
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# replace the first line's 'pick' with 'r' (or 'reword'), exit editor
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# git presents you with commit log message, make any tiny modification.
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</pre>
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The cause: Gerrit refuses to accept a commit with a Change-Id that it already knows and
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where the commit hash is identical.
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If you just cosmetically tweak the first commit's log message, the commit hash
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is changed. Since the following commits contain their predecessor's commit hash, now
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all of the branch's commit hashes are modified, and gerrit happily accepts them as a 
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new patch set. It will still pick up the Change-Ids (which you shouldn't edit) and 
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notice if commits have remained identical (keeping the votes). But with the minor
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commit log tweak, it will no longer thwart your re-submission with an error message.
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Note: you could modify all the Change-Ids, but now your branch submission would
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open entirely new review entries and you would have to abandon your previous submission.
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Comments on the first submission are lost and you cannot diff between patch sets.
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h2. Re-submit Previously Abandoned Changes
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You have to edit the Change-Ids, on a branch that would be every single commit log message.
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<pre>
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cd openbsc
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git co my-branch
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git rebase -i master
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# replace all 'pick' with 'r' (or 'reword'), exit your editor
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# git presents each commit log message for editing
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</pre>
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h2. Submit a "private" branch for master
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If you've pushed a branch to refs/heads/* somewhere, gerrit will already know the Change-Ids on it.
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Make sure the option [[Gerrit#Private-Branches-Create-a-new-change-for-every-commit|Create a new change for every commit not in the target branch]] is _TRUE_ for your project,
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or gerrit will refuse to accept your submission.
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h1. Reasons for Particular Configuration
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h2. Rebase if necessary
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There are different merge strategies that Gerrit performs to accept patches.
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Each project can be configured to a specific merge strategy, but unfortunately you can't
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decide on a strategy per patch submission.
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It seems that the "Merge if Necessary" strategy is best supported, but it creates non-linear
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history with numerous merge commits that are usually not at all necessary.
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Instead, the "Cherry Pick" strategy puts each patch onto current master's HEAD to create
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linear history. However, this will cause merge failures as soon as one patch depends on
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another submitted patch, as typical for a feature branch submission.
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So we prefer the "Rebase if Necessary" strategy, which always tries to apply your patches to
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the current master HEAD, in sequence with the previous patches on the same branch.
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However, some problems still remain, including some bugs in "Rebase if Necessary".
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There's a problem with "Rebase if Necessary": If your branch sits at master's HEAD, Gerrit
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refuses to accept the submission, because it thinks that no new changes are submitted.
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This is a bug in Gerrit, which holger has fixed manually in our Gerrit installation:
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https://bugs.chromium.org/p/gerrit/issues/detail?id=4158
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h2. Private Branches: Create a new change for every commit...
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Say you have an extensive feature in development, and you want to keep it on the
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upstream git repository to a) keep it safe and b) collaborate with other devs on it.
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So, of course, you have regularly pushed to refs/heads/yoyodyne/feature.
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Since you have the gerrit commit hook installed, your feature branch already has
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Change-Id tags in all commit log messages.
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Now your feature is complete and you would like to submit it to master.
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Alas, Gerrit refuses to accept your patch submission for master, because it
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knows the Change-Ids are also on a different branch.
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Gerrit by default enforces that a Change-Id must be unique across all branches,
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so that each submission for review is separate for each branch. Instead, we
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want to handle Change-Ids per-branch, so that you can have the same change
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submitted to different branches, as separate patch submissions, without having
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to cosmetically adjust the Change-Id.
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Solution: set the option 
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_Create a new change for every commit not in the target branch_ to _TRUE_
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h2. Allow content merges
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By default, gerrit compares patches only by the files' paths. If two paths are the same,
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it immediately shows them as conflicts (path conflicts).
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In software development, a conflict usually means an actual content conflict, so if the
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edits are in two entirely separate places in the file, we don't consider this a conflict.
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By setting _Allow content merges_ to _TRUE_ in the git project config, we tell Gerrit to
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perform text merges of the submitted patches and only complain about actual content
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conflicts, in the usual software engineering sense.
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h1. Admin
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h2. Adding users to groups
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Normally, the gerrit UI auto-completes a user name in the edit field. It has happened
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though that an existing user is not auto-completed, as if it didn't exist. In that case,
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find out the user ID (seven digit number like 1000123) and just enter that.
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The user ID can be found on the user's "Settings" page, or in the database (s.b.).
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h2. Querying the database directly
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If your user has permission to access the database, you can place SQL queries using the
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'gerrit gsql' commands over ssh:
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<pre>
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ssh go 'gerrit gsql --format PRETTY -c "show tables"'
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ssh go 'gerrit gsql --format PRETTY -c "select full_name,account_id from accounts"'
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</pre>
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(see ~/.ssh/config above for the 'go' shortcut)
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This seems to be the MySQL dialect.
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