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Sierra Wireless Modems

Sierra Wireless also seems to offer a number of modems that run on MDM9615 or its successors, with Linux inside the module.

List of related modems

  • EM7455
  • many others suspected, FIXME.

Getting access to the Linux system

Sierra Wireless uses a bitmapped NVRAM variable to tell the system which functions to enable. One of these functions is 'adb'. They also implement an AT command to set this variable, but you cannot enable 'adb' there anymore (or maybe you can, using some other password?).

This AT command help text is taken from an old memory dump:

#AT!USBCOMP=<Config Index>,<Config Type>,<Interface bitmask>
#  <Config Index>      - configuration index to which the composition applies, should be 1
#  <Config Type>       - 1:Generic, 2:USBIF-MBIM, 3:RNDIS
#                        config type 2/3 should only be used for specific Sierra PIDs: 68B1, 9068
#                        customized VID/PID should use config type 1
#  <Interface bitmask> - DIAG     - 0x00000001,
#                        ADB      - 0x00000002,
#                        NMEA     - 0x00000004,
#                        MODEM    - 0x00000008,
#                        RMNET0   - 0x00000100,
#                        RMNET1   - 0x00000400,
#                        RMNET2   - 0x00000800,
#                        MBIM     - 0x00001000,
#                        RNDIS    - 0x00004000,
#                        AUDIO    - 0x00010000,
#                        ECM      - 0x00080000,
#                        UBIST    - 0x00200000

There are other ways to set this and other variables, so the AT comand interpreter restriction is not a show stopper. Note that there are invalid gadget combinations, so you can softbrick the modem by changing this variable.

Enable DIAG and AT interface - EM7455

Based on my testing done with the EM7455 (found in Lenovo ThinkPads for example) you cannot use AT commands, because the AT serial port is not exposed. To enable the DIAG interface as well as the AT shell you can try to use the script "swi_usbcomp.pl" attached, created by Bjørn Mork. It is capable of showing the USB configurations available, and also changing the configuration.

Example output - querying the available configurations (the * denotes the active configuration):

./swi_usbcomp.pl 
Running in MBIM mode (driver=cdc_mbim)
MBIM OPEN succeeded
QMI msg '0x0021' returned status = 1
MBIM QMI support verified
supports 33 QMI subsystems:
  0x00 (1.5)    'QMI_CTL'    - Control service
  0x01 (1.67)    'QMI_WDS'    - Wireless data service
  0x02 (1.14)    'QMI_DMS'    - Device management service
  0x03 (1.25)    'QMI_NAS'    - Network access service
  0x04 (1.6)    'QMI_QOS'    - Quality of service, err, service 
  0x05 (1.10)    'QMI_WMS'    - Wireless messaging service
  0x07 (1.3)    'QMI_AUTH'    - Authentication service
  0x08 (1.2)    'QMI_AT'    - AT command processor service
  0x09 (2.1)    'QMI_VOICE'    - Voice service
  0x0a (2.24)    'QMI_CAT2'    - Card application toolkit service (new)
  0x0b (1.45)    'QMI_UIM'    - UIM service
  0x0c (1.4)    'QMI_PBM'    - Phonebook service
  0x0f (1.0)    'QMI_TEST'    - Test service
  0x10 (2.0)    'QMI_LOC'    - Location service 
  0x11 (1.0)    'QMI_SAR'    - Specific absorption rate service
  0x17 (1.0)    'QMI_TS'    - Thermal sensors service
  0x18 (1.0)    'QMI_TMD'    - Thermal mitigation device service
  0x1a (1.16)    'QMI_WDA'    - Wireless data administrative service
  0x1d (1.1)    'QMI_CSVT'    - Circuit switched videotelephony service
  0x22 (1.0)    'QMI_COEX'    - Coexistence service
  0x24 (1.0)    'QMI_PDC'    - Persistent device configuration service
  0x29 (1.0)    'QMI_RFRPE'    - RF radiated performance enhancement service
  0x2a (1.0)    'QMI_DSD'    - Data system determination service
  0x2b (1.0)    'QMI_SSCTL'    - Subsystem control service
  0x2e (1.0)    'unknown'    - 
  0x30 (1.0)    'unknown'    - 
  0x31 (1.0)    'unknown'    - 
  0x36 (1.0)    'unknown'    - 
  0xe1 (1.0)    'QMI_RMS'    - Remote management service
  0xf0 (1.0)    'unknown'    - 
  0xf3 (1.0)    'unknown'    - 
  0xf5 (1.0)    'unknown'    - 
  0xf6 (1.0)    'unknown'    - 
QMI msg '0x0022' returned status = 1
Got QMI DMS client ID '3'
QMI msg '0x555b' returned status = 1
Current USB composition: 9
USB compositions:
   0 - HIP  DM    NMEA  AT    MDM1  MDM2  MDM3  MS      NOT SUPPORTED
   1 - HIP  DM    NMEA  AT    MDM1  MS                  NOT SUPPORTED
   2 - HIP  DM    NMEA  AT    NIC1  MS                  NOT SUPPORTED
   3 - HIP  DM    NMEA  AT    MDM1  NIC1  MS            NOT SUPPORTED
   4 - HIP  DM    NMEA  AT    NIC1  NIC2  NIC3  MS      NOT SUPPORTED
   5 - HIP  DM    NMEA  AT    ECM1  MS                  NOT SUPPORTED
   6 - DM   NMEA  AT    QMI                             SUPPORTED
   7 - DM   NMEA  AT    RMNET1 RMNET2 RMNET3            NOT SUPPORTED
   8 - DM   NMEA  AT    MBIM                            SUPPORTED
*  9 - MBIM                                             SUPPORTED
  10 - NMEA MBIM                                        NOT SUPPORTED
  11 - DM   MBIM                                        NOT SUPPORTED
  12 - DM   NMEA  MBIM                                  NOT SUPPORTED
  13 - Config1: comp6    Config2: comp8                 NOT SUPPORTED
  14 - Config1: comp6    Config2: comp9                 NOT SUPPORTED
  15 - Config1: comp6    Config2: comp10                NOT SUPPORTED
  16 - Config1: comp6    Config2: comp11                NOT SUPPORTED
  17 - Config1: comp6    Config2: comp12                NOT SUPPORTED
  18 - Config1: comp7    Config2: comp8                 NOT SUPPORTED
  19 - Config1: comp7    Config2: comp9                 NOT SUPPORTED
  20 - Config1: comp7    Config2: comp10                NOT SUPPORTED
  21 - Config1: comp7    Config2: comp11                NOT SUPPORTED
  22 - Config1: comp7    Config2: comp12                NOT SUPPORTED
QMI msg '0x0023' returned status = 1

Changing the configuration is simple:

./swi_usbcomp.pl –usbcomp=8
./swi_usbcomp.pl –reset

As you can see ADB cannot be enabled for EM7455 using swi_usbcomp.pl, but at least DIAG and AT shell can be made accessible.

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